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Footprints After the Flood

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Footprints After the Flood

Within each human being is a “roadmap”—a blueprint that can be used to trace mankind back thousands of years to the first steps taken after the biblical Flood.

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Over 4,300 years ago, an event changed the course of history. Often termed “Noah’s Flood,” its effects have confused scientists to this day.

Besides those on the Ark, the Flood destroyed “all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven” (Gen. 6:17). The world was literally cleansed and started anew.

Once the waters had subsided, a new world emerged. The doors of the Ark were opened and mammals, birds, reptiles and human beings set out to repopulate the world.

Until very recently, much of what happened after the Flood has been shrouded in mystery. However, research in genetics sheds some light on mankind’s migration after leaving this enormous ship. Science has discovered certain genetic “markers” hidden in our DNA. These markers present a reasonably accurate map of the route humanity took after the Flood.

Modern scientists have stated much about this genetic footprint, but you will see they make wrong assumptions that misplace the starting point of this great human journey by a few thousand miles!

The trek spans the course of several thousand years, but the story it represents is unlike any you have read before. Using the information hidden in our genes, we can trace the path from ancient times to the doorstep of humanity today.

Markers Revealed

Most understand that a child is made up of attributes of both father and mother. When a baby is conceived, a combination of traits are mixed together to create a completely unique life.

These variations—a kind of genetic shuffling—are why families can have children who are distinct from one another. When these children have their own children, some attributes are passed, with new ones supplied from the other parent. Multiply this shuffling effect hundreds of times, and much of the genetic material becomes extremely diluted, making it difficult to trace an origin.

If one has a “baseline” sample, such as a parent’s DNA, it is very easy to determine if a child, grandchild or even generations of grandchildren later belong to that original baseline parent. Without such a sample, it was previously thought impossible to trace origins up the genetic tree.

Tracing one’s roots: A DNA ancestry scientist places samples into an incubator as he begins the process of extracting DNA at Trace Genetics in Richmond, Calif. The company specializes in DNA testing for genealogy purposes.

However, this changed with the discovery of certain genetic mutations that, once they appear, remain in the genetic code. This constant allows a baseline upon which to map the genetic tree. As more of these mutation markers were found, more of the picture clarified.

Think of it this way: Since these genetic markers are permanent, if two people have the same two markers, it can be demonstrated that they, at some point, share a common ancestor. If you can gather hundreds or thousands of samples, you can begin to chart when each marker appeared and where each race separated during the migration!

The first attempt to map the origins of modern people was done in the mid-1980s. Researchers at the University of California-Berkeley used these markers, actually mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in an attempt to create a genetic map. This research began creating what has been described as the human family.

Their research indicated that all human beings came from a single ancestor! Of course, this is exactly what is explained in the Bible. All human beings can be traced back to the first woman—Eve. And this would mean that all people also originated from a single father—Adam.

Hills of Mount Ararat

The Bible records that once the waters of the Flood receded, the Ark rested upon the peaks of Mount Ararat (Gen. 8:4). This is our starting point, which you will see perfectly compliments the data.

From here, Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, were told by God to go out, fill and repopulate the earth. From these three sons, whose wives were each of a different race, humanity as we know it exists (Gen. 10:32).

After a time, they began to migrate to the lands to which they were directed by God through Noah. Thus begins the greatest journey in the history of mankind.

Three Families, Three Routes

The mtDNA from these three families acts as the starting point. The differences in races today point to three distinct “types” of people. Much confusion has been caused because, while modern science understands that there was originally one mother and father for all of mankind, they do not realize that it was these three families that repopulated the earth after the Flood. This void in understanding—because they reject the Bible as a source of knowledge (Rom. 1:20-22; Hos. 4:6)—is why mankind’s origins are mistakenly placed in eastern-central Africa.

By properly aligning the scientific record with the biblical location of the Ark, we can clearly begin to form the migration picture. Genetic diversity of Africans shows they are distinct from the rest of the world. Modern science, which is seemingly obsessed with time-based analysis, purports that this diversity is the product of time—vast amounts of time—but this is simply not the case. While some of the DNA markers are the same, this is expected because they all shared a common set of parents—Noah and his wife.

It is interesting to note that the Bible states Noah was physically “perfect in his generations” (Gen. 6:9); and, as such, his DNA would contain very little or no mutations. However, nothing is said of his wife, and it is through the mother that mtDNA is passed on. The Bible’s silence on Noah’s wife’s lineage allows an assumption to be made that she already possessed some of the first genetic mutations from which we can trace. Some may consider it a coincidence that mtDNA is passed through the mother; others may see it as design. Either way, it is the mother-child transfer that allows the marvelous genetic atlas to unfold.

Footprints Revealed

From Mount Ararat, Shem traveled west. Genetic data reflects a clear picture of this journey. Unlike the descendants of Ham and Japheth, Shem’s descendants took a short and straight-forward trip through the Middle East and on to Europe. Modern peoples of European ancestry can trace their mtDNA back to a single father, Shem.

Another proof pointing to this similar origin is found in the study of their languages, which are similar in many ways. If you divide the people of the world into three groups, you will find that the languages of Africa, Asia and Europe have very different structures—both in spoken and written form. This is, of course, due to three different migrations.

Ham, along with his sons Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan, also took a shorter path. Turning southwest, the bulk of Ham’s descendants began to populate the African continent. Some descendants of Cush settled in parts of India and Ceylon, while Canaan’s sons settled in the Middle East. This path continues to western and southern Africa, thus, over time, populating much of the continent. Unlike many parts of the world, Africa has remained the most genetically pure. Several parts of the continent have, until only recently, remained isolated from the outside world. Their cultures, tools, social orders, genetics and even languages are largely unchanged. Much could be written about this fascinating continent.

The third leg represents a group who traveled much farther than the two other groups combined. Japheth and his wife journeyed to the east. Considering that these areas were likely populated in approximately 1,000 years, this group would have always been on the move. This nomadic characteristic can be seen today, as many tribes of Asia still remain in nomadic clusters.

Like the peoples of Ham, most of whom separated into two paths in central Africa, Japheth’s relatives dispersed in Central and South Asia. Some continued east and populated Indonesia and Australia, while others broke north and settled in modern Russia. Still others continued north, taking them through northern Siberia to eventually cross the Bering Strait (some anthropologists theorize by land bridge; others insist by boats), before settling in North and South America.

You may be surprised that most all of what you have read is agreed upon by science. Actually, the only disagreement comes from the fact that they consider eastern-central Africa as the starting point. Beyond this faulty start, their map of migration looks very similar to what actually happened.

It is the near obsession with dates and dating that causes modern science to focus on the wrong location. This problem is caused by the woefully inaccurate method of radiocarbon dating.

The Dating Disaster

Science takes a sharp right turn when dating artifacts. Sweeping generalizations and assumptions are applied to radiocarbon dating. Deconstructing this method is critical to understanding how scientists assume Africa to be the cradle of mankind.

In radiocarbon dating, a ratio of non-radioactive carbon (carbon-12) to radioactive carbon (carbon-14) is measured to determine the age of the object. The following example makes this plain: One could take a sample of petrified wood. When it was alive, the wood would have had a ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 similar to the air surrounding it. After its death, decomposition would slowly release carbon-14 into the air, while carbon-12 would remain constant.

Biblical Migration of Man

If one knew the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in the air when the wood was alive, and the rate at which carbon-14 was released from the sample after it died, he could theoretically calculate its age.

Making this even simpler, imagine that you had two containers of water. One represents the air and the other the petrified wood. The “air water” container could be measured to know it contains one gallon of water.

Assuming that each container started with the same amount of water, we could then measure the “wood water” container. If it was found to retain only a half gallon of water, we would know that eight cups of water had been “released.” Further, if we knew that one cup of water was released every 100 years, we could date the wood to 800 years. This all sounds very logical.

However, what is used as the baseline—the carbon-12/carbon-14 air ratio—is impossible to measure. Scientists have assumed that the ratio of these isotopes has remained constant in the atmosphere. But there is one problem—they have not!

Notice: “Not only then has open system behavior of these isotopes been demonstrated, but apparent ‘isochrons’ and their derived ‘ages’ are invariably geologically meaningless. Thus none of the assumptions used to interpret the…radiometric system used to yield ‘ages’ can be valid” (A.A. Snelling, “U-Th-Pb ‘Dating’: An example of False ‘Isochrons’,” Third International Conference on Creationism).

Of course, there are many attempts to explain these isotope variations. Regardless, variations do exist, thus making carbon dating “geologically meaningless.”

Scientists must then cross-reference their finds with items that have already been dated. This is also problematic because many of the items used for comparison were also dated using radiocarbon—meaning all determined ages are based on assumptions!

Can you see how this allows for samples to be dated across a wide range? It is far from reliable and is, in fact, puzzling that such a system is used at all!

But its use—coupled with rejection of the Bible—explains the faulty method scientists use to place mankind’s origin in Africa. When the facts are examined, it becomes obvious that if not for improper dating of certain artifacts, science would be forced to admit origins a few thousand miles northeast—Mount Ararat.

Historic Record Ignored

The Bible reflects many scientific facts—recorded for millennia for all to see—long before man discovered and understood them. Yet most people believe that God’s Word conflicts with science. Many fail to understand that the Bible is the starting point—the foundation—of all knowledge and understanding, including science.

This supposed disagreement is largely due to the fact that, in the past, false religion obstructed science whenever it did not appear to harmonize with the Bible. For example, for many centuries, the medieval Catholic Church embraced the false notion that the earth was flat and that the universe revolved around it. Typical of Catholic dogma, these ideas were borrowed from pagan sources.

Clerics and theologians were so unyielding that when the astronomer Galileo made a series of discoveries confirming the theories of Copernicus, he was put on trial in 1632. Galileo and Copernicus had confirmed the earth’s orbital position in relation to the sun and other planets. They had clearly disproved the false idea of a flat, stationary earth being located at the center of the universe.

Nonetheless, church leaders would not accept this new knowledge because it contradicted their theological “truths”—admitting error was out of the question. Instead, they forced Galileo to publicly renounce his discoveries (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. 11, pp. 406-411).

A World Connected

The confusion created by professing Christianity has never been corrected, and now most view the Bible and science as being diametrically opposed. But time and again, when God’s Word is used as the foundation of scientific knowledge, we find that not only is the result more accurate, but the final picture is framed in a much broader context.

(To prove that the Bible is the inspired Word of God, read our booklet Bible Authority...Can It Be Proven? You will never again look at the world’s bestseller in the same way!)

The big picture points to a humanity that is connected, one that shares a common—and planned—origin. The Being who created everything, from 10 billion trillion stars to comparatively minute human beings, has planned much more for us than an interesting common ancestry.

Jesus Christ foretold His Return to earth 2,000 years ago. Shortly after His Second Coming, the ignorance, confusion, famine, war, disease and death that is the product of man’s rule will become a footnote in history. Christ will begin a millennial rule that will include re-educating the entire world in the right forms of science, the correct integration of nature and the Bible, and, of course, the truth about the origin of mankind.

Human beings will be taught that we are, in fact, descended from three sets of parents—who, in turn, can trace their origin to mankind’s original parents—Adam and Eve. Only then will the tapestry of humanity be fully revealed and taught to a world that will experience the peace and happiness—including outgoing love and concern—of knowing that we are really one big family and, as such, will all equally share in mankind’s incredible human potential.

(You can discover fascinating details of your incredible potential in our book The Awesome Potential of Man.)

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